Monday, May 25, 2020

The Book Between The World And Me By Ta Nehisi Coates

The book Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates offers a poignant reminder that the battle for equality is still ongoing for African Americans, and that the average black reality is rife with perils, which could easily lead to the destruction of life or liberty. In the wake of the recent string of deaths involving unarmed African American citizens by the hands of local law enforcement, Coates presents his narrative in the style of a letter to his son. Writing in the form of a letter offers a deeper sense of intimacy both with its perceived intended subject (Coates’s son) and the reader. The intimacy expressed through this narrative style denotes Coates’s own intense emotions to the reader regarding race in America. In this way, Coates offers a view that is authentic, humanistic, and emotionally charged contrary to just being an omniscient narrator. The diction of the book is colloquial, which gives the text a tone that suggests the seriousness of Coatesâ€⠄¢s message as well at the importance of it being received by the audience. His conveyance of the dire situation African Americans face isn’t veiled in scholarly language. It’s clear and concise and as such the text doesn’t feel journalistic or a mere retelling of facts and figures. The narrative is empirical, relating authority from a place of authenticity, as Coates is African American, did grow up on the impoverished streets of Baltimore, and had experienced violence both first and second hand, whether it wasShow MoreRelatedDr Nehisi Coates, An American Educator, Journalist, And Writer1086 Words   |  5 PagesTa-Nehisi Coates is an American educator, journalist, and writer. Ta-Nehisi writes about social, cultural, and political issues, regarding African-Americans for The Atlantic where he is a national correspondent. Not only did Coates write the book Between the World and Me but he also wrote The Beautiful Struggle.Before reading this book I had no clue who Ta-Nehisi Coates was. When I first read that we had to do a book report I immediately froze up because I hate reading books. I prejudged BetweenRead MorePolice Brutality Against African Americans1358 Words   |  6 Pageshas brought about Ta-Nehisi Coates’s penning of Between the World and Me. In his short novel addressed as a letter to his son, he discusses the fear that all African Americans Coates himself saw growing up in Baltimore. He tells his son, and therefore the reader, stories of his own childhood and young adulthood and of the problems and issues he sees within America. These problems lie within the justice system, the education system, and within our society as a whole. Ta-Nehisi Coates makes his angerRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Between The World And Me984 Words   |  4 PagesThe book, Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates, is written as a letter to his son. Coates cuts into the experience of the father as advice too the son. He writes this letter to his son to educate and awaken his son to the logic of white supremacy and the obstacles he will face as a black man this world. However, Ta-Nehisi’s son isn’t the only audience. He exposes the readers too the effect of racism on Black America, from history until present day. The purpose of this essay is to conductRead MoreA Dream Is A Wish Your Heart Makes1482 Words   |  6 Pagespassing through the mind during sleep†, yet if you ask Disney, â€Å"a dream is a wish your heart makes†. Ta-Nehisi Coates, author of Between the World and Me, writes about the world and all the ugly truths it holds in hopes of preparing his son for the life ahead of him. Coates wants his son to grow up and live a safe life following The Dream, similar to how Martin Luther King Jr talked about the world he dreamt where his children would have social and economic equality. Whether it’d be a prisoner dreamingRead MoreAnalyzing Racial Inequality : Past, Present, And Future Essay1521 Words   |  7 Pagesthe same—obliviousness from the write race. Ta-Nehisi Coates thoroughly addressed this topic in his book titled Between the World and Me. Coates is an American writer and journalist who analyzes political and social issues as they pertain to African Americans; his book was of no difference. Being an African American male, the text really connected to my current way of thinking, but it also made me argumentative of some of the ideas Coates presented. Coates offered critical explanations of black experiencesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book By Ta Nehisi Coates 1567 Words   |  7 PagesThe recently awarded 2015 National Book Award for Nonfiction author, Ta -Nehisi Coates, has stirred quite some debate over the author himself and the issue on race in America. He is harsh and direct when it comes to commenting on the political policies in America or even the president. Much of Ta-Nehisi Coates’s works are affected by his life living in America as a black person. The violent and â€Å"fearsome† life he has lived became the only form of life he is acquainted to. As a result, he stronglyRead MoreThe Book Between The World And Me By Award Winning1335 Words   |  6 PagesThe book Between the World and Me by award winning author Ta-Nehisi Coates is a recent best-seller that introduces a perplexing encounter of African Americans and their struggles to live under a white American supremacy. Mr. Coates did not only write the book for his son, whom he acknowledges throughout the book, but he also writes to those who want to be enlightened about issues that no one wants to address. Who is Ta- Nehisi Coates? How is a African America n viewed in America’s society today? MostRead MoreIn Today’S World, There Are So Many Racial Things Still1246 Words   |  5 Pages In today’s world, there are so many racial things still happening. Whites hating blacks, blacks hating white, everybody hating somebody. We’re so quick to not like someone because of how they look, or their religion, or how they feel about certain things. We’re always so fast to judge someone for their race, sex, size anything. A lot of the times, we choose hate over love. We choose violence over peace and we never take a second to step back and take into consideration we’re the problem with theRead More1 / 5. Student’S Name: . Professor’S Name: . Course: .1165 Words   |  5 Pages1 / 5 Student’s Name: Professor’s Name: Course: Date: Between the World and Me: Black Identity The book Between the World and Me was written by Ta-Nehisi Coates in 2015. The book takes the format of a letter addressed to the writer’s teenage son, where he continually addresses the subject of African Americans in the society (4). Looking at the work from a more critical perspective, Coates work seems to have been inspired by the work of Baldwin of 1963 The Fire Next Time, where he spoke of whiteRead MoreAnalysis Of Kendrick Lamar s The Blacker The Berry Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesGrammy Awards show. Shackled in chains, he moved lethargically across the stage in a prison uniform. Words began to stream out of his mouth and I imagined the elephant that filled the room as an unapologetically black male made a statement to the world about African American oppression in the United States. Kendrick Lamar’s showcase included an intricate set that addressed social issues such as mass incarceration with song, â€Å"The Blacker the Berry†, while keeping hope to wards better days with song

Friday, May 15, 2020

HIV Uses Trojan Horse Method to Infect Cells

Like all viruses, HIV is not able to reproduce or express its genes without the help of a living cell. First, the virus must be able to successfully infect a cell. To do so, HIV uses a veil of human proteins in a Trojan horse manner to infect immune cells. To go from cell to cell, HIV is packaged in an envelope or capsid made from viral proteins and proteins from human cell membranes. Like the Ebola virus, HIV relies on proteins from human cell membranes to gain entrance into a cell. In fact, Johns Hopkins scientists have identified 25 human proteins that have been incorporated into the HIV-1 virus and aid its ability to infect other body cells. Once inside a cell, HIV uses the cells ribosomes and other components to make viral proteins and to replicate. When new virus particles are formed, they emerge from the infected cell cloaked in a membrane and proteins from the infected cell. This helps the virus particles avoid immune system detection. What Is HIV? HIV is the virus that causes the disease known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. HIV destroys cells of the immune system, making an individual infected with the virus less equipped to fight off infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), this virus may be transmitted when infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected persons broken skin or mucous membranes. There are two types of HIV, HIV-1, and HIV-2. HIV-1 infections have mostly occurred in the United States and Europe, while HIV-2 infections are more prominent in West Africa. How HIV Destroys Immune Cells While HIV may infect different cells throughout the body, it attacks white blood cells called T cell lymphocytes and macrophages in particular. HIV destroys T cells by triggering a signal that results in T cell death. When HIV replicates within a cell, viral genes get inserted into the genes of the host cell. Once HIV integrates its genes into T cell DNA, an enzyme (DNA-PK) uncharacteristically sets off a sequence that leads to the death of the T cell. The virus thereby destroys the cells that play a major role in the bodys defense against infectious agents. Unlike T cell infection, HIV infection of macrophages is less likely to lead to macrophage cell death. As a result, infected macrophages produce HIV particles for a longer period of time. Since macrophages are found in every organ system, they can transport the virus to various sites in the body. HIV-infected macrophages may also destroy T cells by releasing toxins that cause nearby T cells to undergo apoptosis or programmed cell death. Engineering HIV-Resistant Cells Scientists are attempting to develop new methods for fighting HIV and AIDS. Stanford University School of Medicine researchers has genetically engineered T cells to be resistant to HIV infection. They accomplished this by inserting HIV-resistant genes into the T-cell genome. These genes successfully blocked the entry of the virus into the altered T cells. According to researcher Matthew Porteus, We inactivated one of the receptors that HIV uses to gain entry and added new genes to protect against HIV, so we have multiple layers of protection -- what we call stacking. We can use this strategy to make cells that are resistant to both major types of HIV. If it is shown that this approach to treating HIV infection could be used as a new type of gene therapy, this method could potentially replace current drug therapy treatment. This type of gene therapy would not cure HIV infection  but would provide a source of resistant T cells that could stabilize the immune system and prevent the de velopment of AIDS. Sources: NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Scientists discover how HIV kills immune cells; Findings have implications for HIV treatment. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 June 2013. (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130605144435.htm).Herbein G. and Kumar A. The macrophage: a therapeutic target in HIV-1 infection. Molecular and Cellular Therapies. Published 2 April 2014. (http://www.molcelltherapies.com/content/2/1/10).Stanford University Medical Center. Immune cells engineered in lab to resist HIV infection, study shows. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 January 2013. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130122101903.htm).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Power Of Shakespeare s Othello And The Tempest - 2263 Words

How is power presented in Othello and The Tempest The theme of power is presented in the ‘The Tempest’ and ‘Othello’ by Shakespeare using different power dynamics between the main characters in the plays. ‘Othello’, a play written in the early 17th century, in the Elizabethan era shows power using the main characters and their interactions with each other, and ‘The Tempest’, a play written later in the 17th century, in the Jacobean era, does likewise. If you compare the plays, you have the two malcontent characters, Iago from Othello and Prospero from The Tempest. Both of these characters feel wronged and therefore act in revenge and show their power. Moreover, Shakespeare explores what power’s take precedence other each over, the powerlessness of women using Desdemona from Othello and Miranda from The Tempest. and just the general power dynamics such as manipulation. Power is a key theme in Othello. In both plays power is used to manipulate other characters and control events. Iago uses his power of language to control and bend people’s action while Prospero uses magic to control everyone else on the island. In the contemporary era (when Othello was written) power controlled everything, your status, respect and it made you a leader. Iago believes he deserves the role of the lieutenant however according to the Elizabethan chain of being Iago as an â€Å"ancient† would never be eligible for that position, even with his experience. Act 1 Scene 1, Iago reveals the truth aboutShow MoreRelatedComparing Power in The Tempest and Othello1801 Words   |  8 PagesComparing Power in ‘The Tempest’ and ‘Othello’ Both plays are about the ultimate struggle for power. Power can be shown in many ways such as race, gender, ‘others’, social class, and most importantly through use of language. Power can be shown in both plays through the use of ‘otherness’. This can be associated with power as characters such as Othello or Caliban are ‘others’ because they are from ‘elsewhere’. One such character who could be described as an ‘other’ is Othello. Bill Bryson suggestedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s A Great Writer2074 Words   |  9 Pages William Shakespeare was a great English writer from several centuries ago and is often seen as one of the most remarkable writers to this day. He not only projects deeper ideas throughout his various types of plays, but he also never ceased to entertain the common man or the families of royalty. â€Å"Shakespeare s words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start th at we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a clichà © such as ‘one fell swoop’ or ‘notRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Othello And The English Language1649 Words   |  7 PagesPoet, playwright, actor and dramatist, William Shakespeare is one of the most influential and greatest writers up to this day in poetry and the English language. Known, for his many acclaimed works such as his famous plays, â€Å"Othello,† â€Å"King Lear,† and â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† etc. More than four hundred years have passed and William Shakespeare’s work still alive as if it was during the early ages of Shakespeare work. Shakespeare influenced ranges from literature, theater, films and even the English languageRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s English Literature Essay1667 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare has been best known for his poems, plays and masterful piece of writings in the English language. He has been referred to as the E ngland s national poet and the Bard of Avon. He produced over thirty eight plays, hundred fifty four sonnets, five poems, and more verses. Shakespeare s plays consist of mainly tragedies, comedies and histories which are regarded as one of the best in those genres. The plays, the poems, and the sonnets have had a significance influence in EnglishRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Othello 1386 Words   |  6 Pagespalpable horror of love gone amiss. In â€Å"OTHELLO,†Ã¢â‚¬Å"MACBETH,† and many more dramas, love’s fatal potential to provoke vengeance or the quest for earthly power is powerfully felt. These are epic investigations of love’s progression. A sonnet, however, is the equivalent of the modern short story. It is a snapshot of a single, significant experience. In two of Shakespeare’s sonnets – diverse in time and temperament, but complimentary in their conclusions – Shakespeare states his deepest feelings about theRead More Othe llo: True Love and Self-love Essay1958 Words   |  8 PagesOthello: True Love and Self-love  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   The William Shakespeare tragic play Othello manifests the virtue of love in all its variegated types through the assorted good and bad characters interacting with each other.    H. S. Wilson in his book of literary criticism, On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy, discusses the love of the Moor for his beloved even at the time of her murder:    And when he comes to execute justice upon Desdemona, as he thinks, he has subdued his passionRead MoreTragic Drama According to AC Bradleys Theory of Shakespeare and a Comparison of Arthur Miller and August Wilsons Concept of Tragedy2899 Words   |  12 PagesPart one: Tragic drama according to A.C. Bradleys theory of Shakespeare The substance of Shakespeares tragedy solely points out to the power of death. In this five act play, the death of important characters suffices for the cruel reality of life. However, a completely realm is required in order to observe Shakespeares version of tragedy. Shakespeare has used tragedy to explain on the major paradoxes of life. It can be called a Paradox of disappointment. Defeat, unfulfilled desired, failed hopesRead MoreEssay Revenge in Shakespeares The Tempest3169 Words   |  13 PagesRevenge in Shakespeares The Tempest The nucleus of the plot in Shakespeares The Tempest revolves around Prospero enacting his revenge on various characters who have wronged him in different ways. Interestingly enough, he uses the spirit of Ariel to deliver the punishments while Prospero delegates the action. Prospero is such a character that can concoct methods of revenge but hesitates to have direct involvement with disillusioning his foes. In essence, Prospero sends Ariel to do his dirtyRead More Shakespeares World Essay3144 Words   |  13 Pagesevery nation on earth reads, studies and performs the works of William Shakespeare. No writer of any country, nor any age, has ever enjoyed such universal popularity. Neither has any writer been so praised. As William Hazlitt observed, quot;The most striking peculiarity of Shakespeares mind was its generic quality, its power of communication with all other minds.quot; It is perhaps this quality that has earned Shakespeare the supreme accolade, that of lending his name to an era. Other than aRead More William Shakespeares Use of Song in the Early Comedies3188 Words   |  13 Pagesasleep (II.ii.7), this lullaby serves to advance the plot: during the song the queen not only retires but achieves such slumber as endures undisturbed by King Oberons ensuing mischief. This function resembles that of Let Me the Canakin Clink in Othello II.iii.71-75), explains Seng: not only to establish an atmosphere . . . but to stretch stage-time and make Cassios rapid drunkenness plausible (186). Further, Seng relates, an Elizabethan audience believed that music had actual therapeutic

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Leadership Styles for Multi Generational Workforce

Question: Discuss about the Leadership Styles for Multi Generational Workforce. Answer: Introduction The ever increasing globalisation and digitization has made the entire world a smaller place. It has shown direct effects on the modern business environments around the globe. Primarily due to increasing globalization of businesses and surmounting competition, the organizations are facing several internal as well as external pressures. Among various pressures such as economic uncertainties of international markets, stiff rise in competition, etc. The two pressures discussed here includes management of diversity in workplace and maintenance of organisational ethics in the modern business scenarios. The workplace diversity denotes the range of variations among the employees working in an organization. Diversity includes a wide variety of parameters such as race, ethnic group, gender, age, cognitive style, personality, tenure, education, organizational function, background and so on. Thus to manage the pressures arising from diversity at workplace is one of the crucial challenges of modern business organisations and managers. Effective management of diversity is essential to leverage the benefits and reduce the pressures caused by it (Ingram, 2017). The aspects of diversity not alone affect the person's perception about themselves but also of others. This in turn affects their mutual interactions and hence their performances in the organization, Managers thus have a critical responsibility of effectively dealing with matters like adaptability, communication and change. Along with the problems relating to the workplace diversity, it has various benefits too. The modern organizations success depends upon its ability to adapt to the new changing business environment. The diverse workforce provides avenues for the increased adaptability for the organization. The varieties of solutions provided by the organizations are greatly benefitted by employees with varied backgrounds, experiences and talents. The managers are able to do better allocation of resources, sourcing and services with the help of team with diversity. Such companies are able to give broader range of services as compared to companies with non-diversified workforce. The variety of viewpoints could be obtained by diverse workforce, enabling the organizations to enjoy benefit of pool of talents from across the globe. The execution of companies which encourage diversity is effective as they inspire their employees to give their best performance on global platform. Thus the organizations produ ctivity, profitability as well as sustainability strengthen. However, the benefits of diverse workforce could be reaped by the organization and managers when they can overcome the issues attached to it. The prime issue in diversified organization is of effective communication. The culture, perception as well as language barriers must be overcome for smooth functioning of the operations in an organisation. the ineffective communication cold lead to poor team work, lack of understanding of objectives of the company, internal disputes or even loss of image of the company in market (Ropes, 2013). It also leads to other major issues such as resistance to change, glitches in implementation of organizational strategies and therefore adverse effects on the profitability of the company. Some of the solutions thatcould be applied by the managers to overcome the pressures posed by diversity of workforce include assessment of diversity in the organization.This could be done using the customizedemployee satisfaction surveys. The managers could use this information toidentify the obstaclesandchallenges of their workforce and thereby implement policies to increase their effectiveness. Another solution managers can adopt is development of comprehensive, attainable and measurable plan for diversity in the workplace. Implementation of this plan could help the managers to ward off pressures posed by diversity. The managers could also evade change resistance with the policies of inclusion by involvingevery employee in bestpossible way. This would help to foster the feeling of belongingness and openness. Organisations at large must promote diversity in leadership positions, so as to encourage employees at lower levels to give wider acceptance to their diversified colleagues. Ma nagers can also utilize diversity training tools to manage increasing diversity in the current business environment (Greenberg, 2013). Managing organisations ethics Organizational ethics could be understood as the underlying standards and principals which governs the operations of a business. The ethics in any organisations could be demonstrated by its acts of compassion, fairness, , integrity, responsibility and honour. The organisation and the managers have the responsibility of ensuring that their employees completely understand the ethics of their company. Therefore, the training of employees on company ethics is important for management to subsidize the pressures of unethical behaviour in an organisation (Al-Asfour Lettau, 2014). The issues which arise from the unethical behaviour in any organisation could lead to loss of reputation, business loss and even ultimate demise of the organisation. The current business environment and high market competition often tempts the companies to adopt methods of profitability that are not entirely ethical. Such method ultimately becomes the cause of pressure from market, regulatory authorities, and as well final consumers. Therefore, it is imperative for the organisation and managers to deal with the issues of organisational ethics (Podsiadlowski Groschke, 2013). One of the most important methods of incorporating organisation ethics in a company is to adopt the policy of uniform treatment of the employees. The companies which treat their employees with equality, tends to incorporate the values and ethics of business in them. Thereby not only protecting their business but also showcasing the image of responsible corporate in the market. Managers could treat their employees with fairness irrespective of their religion, race, cultures or lifestyles. Business ethics could be maintained by managers by giving sensitivity training and providing equal opportunities of growth for all the employees (Suttle, 2017). The important pressure on the companies these days is to protect the community as well as environment in which they operate. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is one of the key aspects of the companies in the global markets. The organisational ethics considers various factors regarding the company's social responsibilities and thus the managers have an important role in ensure the same. Also the aspects of financial ethics must be taken care by the managers in any organisation in order to ensure that the company does not have to face legal or statutory proceedings against it. Mangers can maintain the financial ethics by ensuring no state legislators for tax credits are broken or no insider trading is done by the employees. Also such important laws biding the company to behave ethically in financial matters must be complied by the management (Griseri Seppala, 2010). Conclusion The two pressures of maintaining balance with diverse workforce and upholding ethics in highly competitive current business environments are of great importance for the organizations ad managers. In the coming years would surely see higher diversification and therefore the organisations which would address this issue well in time would only be able to survive in the dynamic business environment. Similarly, the stiffness of competition would only increase in the future. Even in such scenarios the companies adopting ethical means would be able to sustain and become beacon of success in the business world. References Al-Asfour, A., Lettau, L. (2014). Strategies for leadership styles for multi-generational workforce.Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics,11(2), 58. Greenberg, J. (2013). Diversity in the Workplace. University of Houston. Retrieved 20 April 2017, from https://www.uh.edu/ucs/employers/newsletter/2013/fall.pdf Griseri, P., Seppala, N. (2010). Business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Cengage Learning. Ingram, D. (2017). Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity in Workplace. Smallbusiness.chron.com. Retrieved 20 April 2017, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-diversity-workplace-3041.html Podsiadlowski, A., Groschke, D., Kogler, M., Springer, C., Van Der Zee, K. (2013). Managing a culturally diverse workforce: Diversity perspectives in organizations.International Journal of Intercultural Relations,37(2), 159-175. Suttle, R. (2017). Example of Organizational Ethics. Smallbusiness.chron.com. Retrieved 20 April 2017, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/example-organizational-ethics-36755.html

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Killer Whale (Orca) Facts

Killer Whale (Orca) Facts With their striking black and white markings and prevalence at marine parks, the killer whale, also known as the orca or Orcinus orca, is probably one of the most easily-recognized cetacean species. The largest of the dolphin species, orcas live in oceans and seas around the world and can grow to 32 feet long and weigh up to six tons. The name killer whale originated with whalers, who called the species whale killer because of its tendency to prey on whales along with other species such as pinnipeds and fish. Over time, perhaps because of the whales tenacity and ferocity in hunting, the name was switched to killer whale. Fast Facts: Killer Whales (Orcas) Scientific Name: Orcinus orcaCommon Name(s): Killer whale, orca, blackfish, grampusBasic Animal Group:  Mammal  Ã‚  Size:16–26 feetWeight: 3–6 tonsLifespan: 29–60 yearsDiet:  CarnivoreHabitat:  All oceans and most seas with a preference for northern latitudesPopulation:  50,000Conservation  Status:  Data Deficient Description Killer whales, or orcas, are the largest member of the Delphinidae- the family of cetaceans known as the dolphins. Dolphins are a type of toothed whale, and members of the Delphinidae family share several characteristics- they have cone-shaped teeth, streamlined bodies, a pronounced beak (which is less pronounced in orcas), and one blowhole, rather than the two blowholes found in baleen whales. Male killer whales can grow to a maximum length of 32 feet, while females can grow to 27 feet in length. Males weigh up to six tons while females can weigh as little as three tons. An identifying characteristic of killer whales is their tall, dark dorsal fin, which is much larger in males- a males dorsal fin can reach a height of six feet, while a females dorsal fin can reach a maximum height of about three feet. Males also have larger pectoral fins and tail flukes. All killer whales have teeth on both their top and bottom jaws- 48 to 52 teeth in total. These teeth can be up to 4 inches long. Although toothed whales have teeth, they dont chew their food- they use their teeth for capturing and tearing food. Young killers whales get their first teeth at 2 to 4 months of age. Researchers identify individual killer whales by the size and shape of their dorsal fins, the shape of the saddle-shaped, light patch behind the dorsal fin, and scars or marks on their dorsal fins or bodies. Identifying and cataloging whales based on natural markings and characteristics is a type of research called photo-identification. Photo-identification allows researchers to learn about the life histories, distribution, and behavior of individual whales, and more about species behavior and abundance as a whole.   wildestanimal/Getty Images Habitat and Range Killer whales are often described as the most cosmopolitan of all cetaceans. They can be found in all oceans of the world, and not just in the open ocean- near shore, at the entrance to rivers, in semi-enclosed seas, near the equator, and in polar regions covered with ice. In the United States, orcas are most commonly found in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Diet Killer whales are at the top of the food chain and have very diverse diets, feasting on fish, penguins, and marine mammals such as seals, sea lions, and even whales, employing teeth that can be four inches long. They are known to grab seals right off the ice. They also eat fish, squid, and seabirds. Gerard Soury/Getty Images Behavior Killer whales may work in pods to hunt their prey and have a number of interesting techniques to hunt prey, which includes working together to create waves to wash seals off ice floes and sliding onto beaches to capture prey. Killer whales use a variety of sounds for communicating, socializing and finding prey. These sounds include clicks, pulsed calls, and whistles. Their sounds are in the range of 0.1 kHz to about 40 kHz. Clicks are primarily used for echolocation, although they may also be used for communication. The pulsed calls of killer whales sound like squeaks and squawks and appear to be used for communication and socialization. They can produce sounds very rapidly- at a rate of up to 5,000 clicks per second. You can hear killer whale calls here on the Discovery of Sound in the Sea website. Different populations of killer whales make different vocalizations, and different pods within these populations may even have their own ​dialect. Some researchers can distinguish individual pods, and even matrilines (the line of relationship that can be traced from one mother to her offspring), just by their ​calls. Danita Delimont/Getty Images Reproduction and Offspring Killer whales reproduce slowly: Mothers give birth to a single baby about every three to 10 years, and pregnancy lasts for 17 months. Babies nurse for up to two years. Adult orcas generally help mothers to care for their young. While young orcas may separate from their birth pod as adults, many stay with the same pod throughout their lives. Male and female orcas. Kerstin Meyer / Getty Images Threats Orcas, like other cetaceans, are threatened by a range of human activities including noise, hunting, and habitat disturbance. Other threats faced by killer whales include pollution (orcas can carry chemicals such as PCBs, DDTs and flame retardants that can affect the immune and reproductive systems), ship strikes, reduction of prey due to overfishing, and loss of habitat, entanglement, ship strikes, irresponsible whale watching, and noise in the habitat, which can affect the ability to communicate and find prey. Conservation Status The International Union for Conservation of Nature had, for years, described orcas a conservation dependent. They changed that assessment to data deficient in 2008 to recognize the probability that different species of killer whales experience different levels of threat. Species Killer whales were long considered one species- Orcinus orca, but now it appears that there are several species (or at least, subspecies- researchers are still figuring this out) of orcas. As researchers learn more about orcas, they have proposed separating the whales into different species or subspecies based on genetics, diet, size, vocalizations, location and physical appearance. In the Southern Hemisphere, proposed species include those referred to as Type A (Antarctic), large type B (pack ice killer whale), small Type B (Gerlache killer whale), Type C (Ross Sea killer whale), and Type D (Subantarctic killer whale). In the Northern Hemisphere, proposed types include resident killer whales, Biggs (transient) killer whales, offshore killer whales, and Type 1 and 2 Eastern North Atlantic killer whales.   Determining species of killer whales is important not only in gaining information about the whales but in protecting them- it is difficult to determine the abundance of killer whales without even knowing how many species there are. Killer Whales and Humans According to Whale and Dolphin Conservation, there were 45 killer whales in captivity as of April 2013. Due to protection in the U.S. and restrictions on trade, most parks now obtain their killer whales from captive breeding programs. This practice has even been controversial enough that SeaWorld stated in 2016 that it would stop breeding orcas.  While the viewing of captive orcas has likely inspired thousands of budding marine biologists and helped scientists learn more about the species, it is a controversial practice due to the potential effects on the whales health and ability to socialize naturally. Sources â€Å"Orcas: Killer Whales Are the Larges Dolphin Species.†Ã‚  Orcas (Killer Whales): Facts and Information, 25 Mar. 2019, www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/o/orca/.NOAA. â€Å"Killer Whale.†Ã‚  NOAA Fisheries, www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/killer-whale.â€Å"Orca.†Ã‚  National Wildlife Federation, www.nwf.org/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Mammals/Orca.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Whether or not we should use animals in medical research Essay

Whether or not we should use animals in medical research - Essay Example Every side of the argument has posed questions concerning man’s place with respect to these animals and the natural world. Most people arguing against the use of animals for medical research have based their arguments on the relationship between humans and nature philosophies as put forward by Peter Singer that humans do not exist totally above nature, with the focus basically on animals. Singer refers to most attitudes that humans possess towards animals as speciesism that is a concept, which has existed throughout history (Owen 33). Before him, Aristotle was of the view that nature consists of a hierarchy where animals with less ability to reason existed for those who had less ability to reason. Therefore, plants are in existence for the sake of animals, with animals existing for the sake of humans. He used this concept to further his belief in slavery with humans with less reasoning ability existing to serve those with higher ability (Owen 34). While this view has been reje cted by society, it is applied towards animals and other non-humans. Speciesism has been practiced by Christians and Jews based on the superiority they extract from the book of Genesis and God’s word (Owen 36). ... The lobby for animal liberation does not contend that every animal has equal worth, however. It contends that where the animal and man possess similar interests, these interests need to be equated to each other, for instance, the avoidance of physical pain (Owen 37). There should be no automatic discount because one is human and the other evidently is not. Singer’s rejection of speciesism is clearly illustrated by his clarification; he does not mean to imply that all living beings have equal worth via his consideration of how man makes choices within his own species. If man had to make a choice between saving a normal human being’s life and that of an intellectually deficient human, he would most probably plump for the normal one. However, were the choice between the prevention of suffering in a normal human and in the intellectually deprived, making the assumption that both had painful injuries and that there were only pain-killers for one, then the choice becomes murk ier. The choice probably would be on the basis of the one who had more suffering (Owen 38). Because most experiments concerning animals are painful to the animal, the movement for animal rights commits itself to the complete abolition of animal use in medical research. Those that support the utilization of animals for medical research argue that while animals do suffer in a morally significant way, this is not sufficient ground, by itself, to afford them equal status morally with humans (Owen 50). Therefore, if the animals do not have the same moral status in comparison to humans, humans are not morally obligated to restrain themselves from using them for medical research.